This NIPS 2006 talk by Josh Tenenbaum, entitled "Bayesian Models of Human Learning and Inference," is a good overview of how Bayesian techniques are being used to model human intelligence. The NIPS page includes an abstract of the talk, the powerpoint presentation (170 slides), and a video of the talk (about 2 hrs long). (It looks like the large 900x600 video doesn't include sound, so don't download that one.)
This talk was interesting to me because I am using Bayesian networks (non-parametric, hierarchical) for sensory and motor representations. It's good to see that people are seriously considering Bayesian methods as realistic models of human intelligence.